Now we know the stepper motors required for our project we can match them to a suitable CNC controller. The controller converts the g-code we’ve created and sends step pulses to the stepper motors. It also takes input signals from the machine such as limit switches and E-stops.
So there are 3 things we need to know:
Number of Axes. So usually 3 for routers and 4 for a foam cutter
Current and voltage we need to supply to the stepper motors
How do we intend to connect the computer to the CNC controller
Number of Axes
CNC routers can use 3 or 4 axis controllers. There is only 3 planes of movement X, Y and Z but some designs use two stepper motors on one axis. My OX CNC router uses two NEMA 23 on the Y-Axis as its a gantry type router. Some move the table bed for the Y-Axis on sliders and only need 1 motor for the Y-Axis. Like a 3d printer bed.
Y-Axis complete and running very smooth
Foam cutters need 4 axes to allow the hot wire to move in any direction on 4 planes usually X,Y,U and V.